When lesson planning, it is important to understand the abilities of the students we teach. My aim is to build on prior knowledge, whilst extended the student past their comfort zone, in order to help them improve. This “comfort zone” is often referred to as their zone of proximal development. (Vygotsky, 1978).
In most English Language Learner (ELL) Programs, there are commonly 5 or 6 accepted stages of language acquisition. They are commonly described like this;
Stage 1: Pre-Production referred to in TESOL as “Starting”
Stage 2:Early Production referred to in TESOL as “Emerging”
Stage 3: Speech emergence referred to in TESOL as “Developing”
(Stage 3b: Beginning Fluency is sometimes included)
Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency referred to in TESOL as “Expanding”
Stage 5: Advanced Fluency referred to in TESOL as “Bridging”
(Krashen & Terrell, 1983).
Next month in Grade Four, we will make presentations about Natural Disasters under the PYP theme ” How we organise ourselves”. We will most likely use an app on the iPad called ロイロノト (Loilo note). Loilo note allows students to put images, text, audio and video into a slide show. This app is fun, it`s great for having student move and interact with others (when taking video for example) and to help weaker English speakers present their understanding to their peers. Ultimately, the class will view their peers` presentations. The unit will last for 5 weeks.
The learning objectives will be based on viewing and presenting and the class will be differentiated by overall English level, there are students at 4 levels, from early production to advanced fluency.
Students at Stage 2 will work in pairs and write short sentences to show their understanding through illustrations and role play, making and answering at least one “who” and one “what” question. The Viewing and Presenting learning outcome will be “Students show their understanding that visual messages influence behaviour”
Students at Stage 3 will be able to choose to work alone or in pairs, use some visible thinking routines whilst researching and (in addition to stage 2 outcomes) will express what purpose they wanted to achieve by making the presentation. They will make and answer a “why” and a “how” question. The Viewing and Presenting learning outcome will be “Students observe visual images and be able to express that they have been created to achieve a particular purpose.”
Students at Stage 4 will present alone but will use a Think, Pair and Share activity to prepare the presentation and (in addition to Stage 2 and 3 outcomes) prepare a short spoken presentation to accompany their presentation. They will answer a hypothetical question; such as “What will your friends learn by watching your presentation ?” The Viewing and Presenting learning outcome will be “Students will access information and present it in a meaningful way”.
Students at Stage 5 will present alone and (in addition to stage 2,3 and 4 outcomes) they will prepare a spoken message to go along with each part of their presentation. When viewing their peer`s work, they will discuss their peer’s presentations after demonstrating effective note-taking and make suggestions on how they could be improved. The Viewing and Presenting learning outcome will be” Students observe and discuss visual presentations; make suggestions about why they have been created and what the creator has been aiming to achieve.”
(2016). Tesol.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016, from http://www.tesol.org/docs/books/bk_prek-12elpstandards_framework_318.pdf?sfvrsn=2
English Language and Literature. (2016). Moe.gov.sg. Retrieved 19 May 2016, from https://www.moe.gov.sg/education/syllabuses/english-language-and-literature
Haynes, J. (2016). Stages of Second Language Acquisition. Everythingesl.net. Retrieved 19 May 2016, from http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.php
Language Acquisition: An Overview | Colorín Colorado. (2009). Colorincolorado.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/language-acquisition-overview
The Stages of Second Language Acquisition. (2016). Ascd.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108052/chapters/The-Stages-of-Second-Language-Acquisition.aspx
Visible Thinking. (2016). Visiblethinkingpz.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016, from http://www.visiblethinkingpz.org/VisibleThinking_html_files/03_ThinkingRoutines/03a_ThinkingRoutines.html